Now click on the link that says: I have a registration Code that came with my book . | When asked to enter your code, type in your Unique Access Number. References: 1. Object –Oriented –Programming in C++ by E Balagurusamy. 2. Object –Oriented –Programming with ANSI & Turbo C++ by Ashok N. Kamthane. Language English. E BalaguruSamy – C++. Identifier EBalagurusamyObjectOrientedProgrammingWithC. Identifier-ark ark:// t0rr4g61p.

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POP has two major drawbacks, vie, 13 data move freely around the program and are therefore vulnerable to changes caused oo;s any function in the program, jand 2 it does not model very wulL the rcal-wurld problems.

However, riot all languages are suitable to implement the OOP concepts easily, 1 1. It supports the concept of hierarcfiicxit clnsRificatinTi. Can we have more oosp one constructors in a class f If yes, explain the need for such a situation. It ties data more closely to the functions that operate on it in a data structure called class.

Balaguruswamy OOP with C++ by By Balagurusamy – PDF Drive

We can perform any operations on it For instance, in the above class definition, the oopa function setvalO sets the values of elements of the array a[ 1, and display 1 function displays the values. O By default, members of the class are private whereas that of structure arc public. The general form of a class declaration in: Therefore, the changes, made ineide the operator function will not reflect in the called object. It ;dwo provides another member function called the destructor that destroys the objects when they are no longer required.

Balaguruswamy OOP with C++

Maintainability balagurjswamy, Reusability 4. The static function shmveourtU displays the number of objects created till that moment. In case of constant pointer we can not modify the address that the pointer is balagurusway to. For example, the destructor for the matrix class discussed above may be defined us fallows: A point in polar coordinates is shown in Fig. For instance, bank inLertisL may remain, the same for all Customers for a particular period of deposit.

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Normally, only small functions arc defined inside the class definition.

balagueuswamy When either of them fails, the compiler tries to use the built-in. This means that we can use either of the sections to initialize the data members of the constructors class. We should exercise care before making a function inline.

It is associated with polymorphism and inheritance, A function call associated with a polymorphic reference depends on the dynamic type of that reference. This value is right-justified within the field as shown below; 3 4 5 Program 3.

A function that is a friend of the class. Another serious drawback with the procedural approach is that it does not model real world problems very well. Any non-virtual bases are then constructed before the derived class constructor is executed.


Operator functions must be either member functions non-static nr friend functions. They arc simply variables or constants. Write a main that calls both the functions. Object-based programming languages, and 2. It can also inherit directly as shown by the broken line.

It also makes the program easier to understand because the variables are declared in the context of their use. It may be recalled that objects communicate by sending and receiving messages. Date encapsulation is the most striking feature of a class, The data is not accessible to the outside world, and only those functions which are wrapped in the class can access it.

Balaguruswmy creating multi-dimensional arrays with new, all the array sizes must be supplied.


Display all Items 5 ; Quit What is your option?! A language that m specially designed to support the OOP concepts makes it easier to implement them.

The header files contain classes that implement the standard Library containers Containers store data during a program’s execution, We discuss these header files in Chapter 14 Contains classes and functions used by algorithms of the stan- dard library. Depending upon the features they support, they can be classified into the following two categories: Consider the procedure “draw” in Fig.

However, persistence a process, of storing objects is not fully supported by any cif i hem.

E Balagurusamy Object Oriented Programming With C++

The parameter values to these constructors are provided at run time. Il rsturiiH a complex type value. This is shown in Fig. The function di splay Su mi first evaluates the total value of the order and then prints the value.

The mechanism of giving such special meanings to an operator is known as operator overloading.

This means that we can add additional features to an existing class without modifying it. Basic to Class Type The conversion from basic typo to class type is easy to accomplish. Integrity Balagufuswamy, User friendliness Selection and uac oopa proper software tools would help resolving some of these issues. We tan create exactly the type of object needed, using information that is known only at the runtime. Balance amount in Ifie accou-ret Member functions 1.

The properties of a static member variable are similar to that of a C static variable. We have seen some of the applications of fkj] tilers in Chapters 3 and B.